The global epidemiology of clonorchiasis and its relation with cholangiocarcinoma
1 National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborative Center for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
2 Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA
3 Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China
4 School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China
Infectious Diseases of Poverty 2012, 1:4 doi:10.1186/2049-9957-1-4Published: 25 October 2012
This paper reviews the epidemiological status and characteristics of clonorchiasis at global level and the etiological relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A conservative estimation was made that 15 million people were infected in the world in 2004, of which over 85% distributed in China. The epidemiology of clonorchiasis is characterized by rising trend in its prevalence, variability among sexes and age, as well as endemicity in different regions. More data indicate that C. sinensis infection is carcinogenic to human, and it is predicted that nearly 5 000 CCA cases attributed to C. sinensis infection may occur annually in the world decades later, with its overall odds ratio of 4.47. Clonorchiasis is becoming one major public health problem in east Asia, and it is worthwhile to carry out further epidemiological studies.